New markets have appeared linked to Kyoto Protocole and Climate change and energy package 20 20 20 by 2020 (Reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 20% from 1990 levels by 2020,Increase the share of renewable energy sources in energy consumption to 20% and 20% increase in energy efficiency)
Emissions trading or cap-and-trade is a market-based approach used to lower pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants.
The permits or units can be traded on the international market at the current market prices. The trade is international and hence allowances can be transferred between countries. Each international transfer is validated by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Each transfer of ownership within the European Union is additionally validated by the European Commission. Currently exchanges operate on CO2 on various maturities ( spot, futures, forwards).
Energy Saving Certificates
White certificate, also referred to as an Energy Savings Certificate (ESC), Energy Efficiency Credit (EEC), or white tag, is an instrument issued by an authorized body guaranteeing that a specified amount of energy savings has been achieved. Each certificate is a unique and traceable commodity carrying a property right over a certain amount of additional energy savings and guaranteeing that the benefit of these savings has not been accounted for elsewhere.
In Europe several countries have implemented a white certificate scheme or are seriously considering doing so. Italy started a scheme in January 2005; France and Denmark a year later. Great Britain has combined its obligation system for energy savings with the possibility to trade obligations and savings. Poland should start soon.
A Green Certificate – terminology used in Europe – also known as Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) in the USA, are a tradable commodity proving that certain electricity is generated using renewable energy sources. Typically one certificate represents generation of 1 Megawatthour of electricity. What is defined as “renewable” varies from certificate trading scheme to trading scheme. Usually, at least the following sources are considered as renewable: wind, solar, wave, hydro, biomass.
Green House gas inventory
Any human activity generates, directly or indirectly, greenhouse gas emissions. In this respect, any corporation, administration or association might legitimately be interested in the amount of emissions its process generates in order to try and reduce its effects on the environment. Hence it is necessary to evaluate the various measures one can take.
The purpose of a “Bilan Carbone” (a carbon dioxide evaluation) of an industry or service company is to compute these greenhouse gases, primarily carbon dioxide. These calculations are linked to the physical process of the industry, whether these greenhouse gases are emitted internally or externally.
The gases emitted resulting from activities taking place internally, such as electricity consumption, gas or fuel combustion in a furnace, the transformation of raw materials into semi-finished or finished products, waste disposal and energy consumed when selling goods, are the first to be accounted for. “Bilan Carbone” also measures greenhouse gases emitted externally resulting from procedures necessary to the industry such as the transportation of workers or freight.
The calculations can also apply to an innovation and determine the increase or decrease of greenhouse gas it generates.
The “Bilan Carbone” method can calculate an average of these gas emissions in a reasonable amount of time and express them in a CO2 unit of measure called “facteurs d’émissions” (output rate). This method therefore provides an estimation scale of the greenhouse gases emitted and can help reduce them in a sustainable environment program. It can also be used as a reporting tool to communicate quality standards and for the newly created ISO norm 14064.
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